Origin of the concept ‘circular fashion’
The concept ‘circular fashion’ was first coined and used in spring 2014 by two actors, almost simultaneously and independently of each other. One of these was Anna Brismar, owner of the consultancy firm Green Strategy. Brismar coined the term circular fashion in June 2014 at an early project meeting, when planning for a sustainable fashion event in central Stockholm. (This event was hereafter named CIRCULAR FASHION – SHOW & TALK 2014.) As developer and manager of the CFST 2014 event, Brismar introduced the concept and main principles of circular fashion to all participating brands and panelists as a guiding framework in preparing for the event. Some of the more well-known Swedish brands showcased at the event were Filippa K, Houdini and Nudie Jeans. Panelists at the two panel debates were professionals working in the sustainable fashion field in Sweden at the time. The CFST 2014 event became an important catalyst for spreading the concept of circular fashion within the fashion industry, first in Sweden and soon across a wider audience in Europe and globally.
Another actor that was also first to use the term circular fashion was H&M, specifically its sustainability staff at the H&M’s headquarters in Stockholm. H&M used the term internally for the first time in spring 2014. In July 2014, H&M went out officially for the first time with the term, in its Swedish form (‘cirkulärt mode’), at a public seminar during “Almedalen week” on Gotland in the South of Sweden.
In short, 2014 was the year when the notion of circular economy sailed in strongly on the political agenda in Sweden and other European countries, and possibly elsewhere too. Apparently, the time was right for the two concepts of circular economy and sustainable fashion to merge – as circular fashion.
Definition of circular fashion
As defined by Anna Brismar, the concept ‘circular fashion’ is based on the main principles of circular economy and sustainable development, and relates to the fashion industry in a wide sense, i.e. not only to fashion but also apparel, sportswear and outdoor wear. Garments as well as shoes and accessories are in focus. The sixteen key principles of circular fashion concern the entire life cycle of a product, from design and sourcing, to production, transportation, storage, marketing and sale, as well as the user phase and the product’s end of life. The concept was inspired by the notion of circular economy, primarily the theories presented on the Ellen MacArthur Foundation website. The following definition has been developed by Brismar and is the only existing definition to date (the last version updated in 2017):
‘Circular fashion’ can be defined as clothes, shoes or accessories that are designed, sourced, produced and provided with the intention to be used and circulate responsibly and effectively in society for as long as possible in their most valuable form, and hereafter return safely to the biosphere when no longer of human use. (Anna Brismar, Green Strategy, 2017)
In other words, fashion products should be designed with high longevity, resource efficiency, non-toxicity, biodegradability, recyclability and good ethics in mind. Similarly, they should be sourced and produced with priority given to local, non-toxic, renewable, biodegradable and recyclable resources, as well as efficient, safe and ethical practices. Moreover, the products should be used for as long as possible, through good care, repair, refurbishment and sharing among multiple users over time (through rent/lease, secondhand, swap etc). Thereafter, the products should be redesigned to give the material and components new life. Lastly, the material and components should be recycled and reused for the manufacturing of new products. If unfit for recycling, the biological material should instead be composted to become nutrients for plants and other living organisms in the ecosystem. Overall, the life cycle of products should bring no environmental or socio-economic harm but instead contribute to positive development and well-being of humans, ecosystems and societies at large.
Overview on circular economy
Over the last years, the notion of a circular economy has been widely promoted across Europe, North America and Asia. Certain persons and organizations have been particularly successful in spreading the concept and its principles to a wider audience, namely Dame Ellen MacArthur (at Ellen MacArthur Foundation), Walter Stahel (at the Product Life Institute) and Michael Braungart and William McDonough (partly through the Cradle to Cradle Products Innovation Institute).
“The circular economy refers to an industrial economy that is restorative by intention; aims to rely on renewable energy; minimise, tracks and eliminates the use of toxic chemicals; and eradicates waste through careful design.” (Ellen MacArthur Foundation)
In essence, a circular economy implies that all materials and products in society are used and circulate among its users for as long as possible, in an environmentally safe, effective and just manner. Waste as we know it does not exist. Instead, waste is looked upon as a resource or as “nutrients” for other processes to take place in society. Natural resources, including energy, are used effectively during both production and consumption. The use of virgin materials is kept at a minimum. Also, renewable energy sources are prioritized and any undesired environmental impact is prevented or minimized.
Furthermore, all materials are free from hazardous substances and chemicals, in order to enable safe and pure material flows in society. Even non-hazardous particles are not allowed to accumulate in society in ways or levels that could be harmful to ecosystem functioning (so called bio accumulation).
The notion of circular economy also entails making a distinction between, on the one hand, biodegradable components or nutrients that will naturally decompose in Nature, and on the other hand, technically or synthetically manufactured components that can not naturally decompose. Thus, two types of cycles can be distinguished in a circular economy, i.e. biological and technical cycles. For the fashion industry, this means that natural fibers such as cotton, silk, wool, viscose and wood are considered biological nutrients, and should flow in separate biological cycles (or be separable from any technical components). In contrast, polyester, nylon, acrylic, metals and plastics are considered “technical components” and should be recycled in separate flows.
Because technical (synthetic) and biological (natural) components should be treated separately, products that contain at two or more material types should be designed to allow easy separation of individual parts. Hereby, repair and component replacement can be facilitated, as well as redesign (upcycling) and ultimately recycling of individual material types at the end of use. This so-called “design for disassembly” is a central principle of circular economy.
To support a circular economy, various infrastructures, modes of collaboration and new business models should be set up. Also, new design practices are introduced and new customer services provided. The aim is to maximize product longevity and durability through various design and sourcing priorities, and also to support repair, redesign and recycling services. For a fashion company, this may entail offering customers the possibility to rent/lease clothes as opposed to buying. Also, it may entail repair services, whereby customers can hand in broken products for repair or to receive a repair kit for mending at home. Redesign is another service that may be offered by a company. Providing products on demand, i.e. custom-made and/or tailor made, is yet another possible service (sometimes called “purchase of demand”). As the Ellen MacArthur Foundation explains it:
“…circular economy advocates the need for a ‘functional service’ model in which manufacturers or retailers increasingly retain the ownership of their products and, where possible, act as service providers—selling the use of products, not their one-way consumption. This shift has direct implications for the development of efficient and effective take-back systems and the proliferation of product- and business model design practices that generate more durable products, facilitate disassembly and refurbishment and, where appropriate, consider product/service shifts.” (Ellen MacArthur Foundation)
In sum, this circular way of thinking and working brings many new and exciting opportunities for the fashion and textile industry!
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